Here are some of the actions taken by King Dyah Balitung during his reign :
- In Telang inscription of 904 AD, it was stated that Rakai Watukur built a crossing at Paparahuan (Praon village near Wonogiri) on the bank of River Bengawan Solo. For that purpose, three villages namely Telang, Mahe, and Paparahuan were made a ‘sima’.
- In Guntur inscription (907 AD), it was stated that Dyah Balitung had issued a Jayaputra (court decision). The problem was : someone named Pu Tabwel, citizen of Guntur village, had been prosecuted by the authority based on the suit brought by Sang Dharma who had failed to collect a debt from him.
Pu Tabwel was not willing to pay because the debt was made by his wife who had died. In the trial, Pu Tabwel won the case because, at that time, the debt made by a wife without the husband’s notice was not the responsibility of the husband. So Pu Tabwel was given Jayaputra (letter of court decision) in front of some government officials to prevent the case from being reopened in the future.
After the death of Kings Balitung, Old Mataram was consecutively ruled by King Daksa (910 – 919 AD), Tulodong (919 – 924 AD), and Wawa (924 – 929 AD). But there are no significant sources that can describe the role of the three kings.
In 929 AD, the center of Old Mataram Kingdom was moved by Empu Sindok to Watugaluh (East Java). He was regarded as the founder of Isyana Dynasty.
According to some historians, the capital was moved because Mataram was destroyed by a natural disaster, the eruption of Mount Merapi. The reign of Empu Sindok went on in security and peace. He often gave aids for building places of worship. In literature, the holy book of Tantrayana Buddhism was written and called Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan.
The successor of Empu Sindok was King Dharmawangsa. To increase the prosperity of the people. Dharmawangsa attempted to take control of the trade and navigation lines which were controlled by Sriwijaya at that time.
In 990 AD, he sent his troops to Sumatra and Malacca Peninsula. The troops managed to conquer some coastal regions of Sriwijaya. Dharmawangsa’s efforts were regarded as having significantly improved the condition of the kingdom.
In 1016 AD, Dharmawangsa’s authority was shaken by a dreadful misfortune. When he was marrying his daughter to Airlangga (crown princes of Bali), the palace was suddenly attacked by the troops of Wurawari, a subordinate king to Dharmawangsa, who had been agitated by Sriwijaya.
In the incident, almost all important high-ranking officials of Old Mataram were killed. The attack of King Wurawari on King Dharmawangsa and his people was known as ‘Pralaya Medang’.
in 1019 AD, Airlangga was crowned as a king by Buddhist monks and brahmanas and he was dubbed Rake Halu Sri Lakeswara Mahabrahmana Airlangga Anantawikramattunggadewa. Most of Airlangga’s term of government was filled with wars to conquer subordinate kings who rebelled against Mataram.
Some of the wars were the wars against King Bhismaprabhawa. King Wengker, and a queen from south of Tulungagung. All the wars were won by Airlangga. In 1033 AD, Airlangga even succeeded in taking revenge on the death of his father-in-law by defeating the king of Wurawari. Since then, Airlangga managed to reunite the separated kingdoms and start to develop his country.
In the government sector, Airlangga conducted reorganization by appointing people who had been meritorious to him. In the economic sector, Airlangga issued an order to build a dam across the River Brantas. In literature, a number of works were produced, for instance, the book of Arjuna Wiwaha which was written by Empu Kanwa. In the social field, a lot of sacred places were built also places for meditating and dormitories for monks. All the development efforts were aimed to improve the prosperity of the people.
Airlangga was a wise king. When the crown princess, Sanggramawijaya Dharma Prosadottunggadewi, refused to receive the throne, he was not angry. Instead, he built a hermitage at Pucangan because his daughter preferred to live as a hermit.
Then Airlangga faced difficulty because the son of Dharmawangsa, Samarawijaya, demanded his right over Mataram Kingdom. On the other hand, his son, Mapanji Garasakan, also demanded the throne. This condition could have led to a dispute for power.
In 1041 AD, Airlangga decided to split his kingdom into two. The splitting of the kingdom was done by a brahmana who was well-known for his supernatural power, Empu Bharada. He split the kingdom into two, Janggala and Panjalu.
It turned out that the division of the kingdom did not solve the problem. Not long after the division, the king of Janggala attacked Panjalu. Maybe because of the ongoing war, the capital town – Dahanapura was moved from one place to another until finally it was located in Kediri.
Setelah kerajaan terpecah, Airlangga pensiun pada tahun 1042 M dan menjadi pertapa di Belahan, di lereng Gunung Penanggungan. Ia meninggal dan dimakamkan di sana pada tahun 1049 M, kemudian dibangun sebuah tempat pemandian di lokasi tersebut. Peti Airlangga dimakamkan di dasar tempat pemandian. Kemudian di atasnya juga dibangun patung Wisnu yang menunggangi burung Garuda. Di sebelah kanannya, didirikan patung Laksmi, permaisuri pertamanya, sedangkan di sebelah kirinya, ditempatkan patung Sri Sanggramawijaya Tungga Dewi, permaisuri keduanya dan putri raja Sriwijaya.